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Transit  Construction  Commissioner 


A  Report 

by  the  Chief  Engineer 
submitting  for  Consideration  a 
Comprehensive  Rapid  Transit  Plan 
Covering  all  Boroughs  of  the 
City  of  New  York 


{Reprinted  from  Minutes  of 
Transit  Construction  Com- 
missioner of  August  2, 1920) 


OFFICE  OF  TRANSIT  CONSTRUCTION  COMMISSIONER 
49  Lafayette  Street 
New  York,  N.  Y. 

John  H.  Delaney,  Daniel  L.  Turner, 

Commissioner  Chief  Engineer 


Ex  iCtbrts 


SEYMOUR  DURST 


When  you  leave,  please  leave  this  book 

Because  it  has  been  said 
"Ever'thinQ  comes  f  him  who  waits 

Except  a  loaned  book." 


AVI  KY  Al<(  IIITI  ( Tl  RAI  AND  F*  INI  AIM  S  LIBRARY 
(ill  I  Ol  Si  YMOI'R  \i.  1)1  KM  ()|  I)  Y<)KK  I.IUR ARY 


Si«ii«TICIAN8 


JAH  26  1921 


INTRODUCTION 


For  proper  municipal  growth  and  development  well-considered  City  planning  is 
absolutely  essential.  No  satisfactory  City  plan  can  be  devised  without  giving  proper 
study  to  transit  requirements  and  facilities.  In  fact,  without  proper  and  adequate 
transit  service  normal  municipal  growth  is  certain  to  be  retarded  and  abnormal  and  con- 
gested conditions  develop  in  certain  metropolitan  districts  and  strangulation  of  growth 
results  in  neglected  areas. 

The  Transit  Construction  Commissioner,  realizing  the  necessity  of  an  orderly 
development  of  rapid  transit  lines  in  all  sections  of  the  City,  authorized  Chief  Engineer 
Daniel  L.  Turner  to  study  and  formulate  a  plan  representing  his  conception  of  the 
problem  and  its  solution.  The  report  was  presented  July  29th  and  was  ordered  printed 
for  distribution  without  official  action  being  taken  upon  its  recommendations.  The 
purpose  of  publication  is  to  evoke  suggestion  and  criticism.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind 
that  it  is  not  contemplated  that  the  comprehensive  transit  scheme  in  its  entirety  should 
be  undertaken  at  once  but  that  it  should  be  proceeded  with  gradually  and  continuously. 


6ox  <?g 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
in  2013 


http://archive.org/details/reportbychiefengOOnewy 


PROPOSED   COMPREHENSIVE   RAPID   TRANSIT   PLAN  COVERING 
ALL  OF  THE  BOROUGHS  OF  NEW  YORK  CITY 


The  Honorable  John  H.  Delanev, 

Commissioner. 

Dear  Sir : 

I  submit  herewith  a  report,  together  with  a  map,  with  respect  to  a  Proposed  Com- 
prehensive Rapid  Transit  Plan  covering  all  of  the  Boroughs  of  New  York  City. 

It  has  been  recognized  since  the  inception  of  the  first  subway  that  the  public 
authorities  charged  with  the  responsibility  therefor  should  provide  the  necessary  plans 
so  that  the  construction  of  rapid  transit  lines  might  go  on  continuously,  in  order  that 
the  transit  facilities  might  keep  pace  with  the  enormous  traffic  growth  in  the  City.  Con- 
forming to  this  policy,  recommendations  with  plans  were  submitted  to  the  predecessors 
of  the  Transit  Construction  Commissioner,  the  Board  of  Rapid  Transit  Railroad  Com- 
missioners, and  its  successor,  the  Public  Service  Commission,  which  formed  the  basis 
for  the  lines  included  in  the  Dual  System  contracts. 

Since  the  Dual  System  contracts  have  been  under  construction,  the  attention  of  the 
Public  Service  Commission  and  of  the  Transit  Construction  Commissioner  necessarily 
has  been  devoted  almost  entirely  to  the  completion  of  these  contracts.  But  it  has  been 
recognized  that  a  new  transit  program  was  imperatively  necessary.  Therefore,  in  the 
Fall  of  1919,  which  was  as  early  as  the  circumstances  permitted,  I  undertook  to 
formulate  a  comprehensive  transit  plan.  The  result  of  these  studies  I  am  now  sub- 
mitting. The  time  has  now  arrived  when  we  must  look  ahead  again  and  provide  plans 
for  and  begin  the  work  of  construction  on  the  enlargement  of  the  rapid  transit  system. 

It  has  probably  averaged  ten  years  from  the  inception  of  previous  general  transit 
projects  to  the  date  of  the  beginning  of  operation.  It  is  therefore  important  to  begin 
the  new  plans  at  once.  In  considering  routes  that  are  to  be  recommended  for  early 
construction  it  is  desirable  that  the  program  deal  with  the  transit  requirements  for  the 
next  25  years.  Therefore,  in  my  analysis  of  the  situation  I  have  undertaken  to  indicate 
the  new  facilities  which  in  my  judgment  should  be  included  in  such  a  25-year  building 
program.    They  are  as  follows : 

Extensions — 

Extension  of  the  Corona  branch  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  from  its  present 
terminus  to  Main  Street,  Flushing. 

Extension  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  from  its  proposed  terminus  at  Seventh 
Avenue  and  41st  Street  west  through  41st  Street  to  a  connection  with  the  proposed 
Amsterdam  Avenue-Eighth  Avenue  trunk  line. 

Two-track  extension  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation  Broadway- 
Fourth  Avenue  line  from  59th  Street  and  Seventh  Avenue  up  Central  Park  West  and 
Eighth  or  Seventh  Avenue  to  the  Harlem  River. 

Extension  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation  Broadway-Fourth 
Avenue  line  from  a  connection  at  Broadway  and  City  Hall  Park,  via  Ann  Street  and 
the  East  River  to  Brooklyn,  and  via  Brooklyn  Bridge  terminal  property,  Washington 
Street,  Livingston  Street,  DeKalb  Avenue  and  Fort  Greene  Place  to  a  connection  with 
the  Fulton  Street  elevated  line  at  or  near  Ashland  Place. 

Extension  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation  Fourth  Avenue  Sub- 
way, Brooklyn,  by  way  of  a  two-track  tunnel  under  the  Narrows  to  the  Borough  of 
Richmond. 

Extension  of  the  Nostrand  Avenue  Subway  of  the  Interborough  Company  south  into 
and  through  Coney  Island. 

Extension  of  the  Astoria  branch  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  south  through  Queens 


4 


and  Brooklyn  to  a  connection  with  the  Brighton  Beach  line  in  Brooklyn,  thereby 
providing  a  Brooklyn  crosstowii  line. 

Extension  of  the  two  tracks  of  the  Interhorough  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway  line 
now  terminating  at  the  Battery  from  a  point  at  Greenwich  and  Liberty  Streets  via 
Liberty  Street,  Maiden  Lane  and  the  East  River  to  Brooklyn,  and  thence  via  Hicks  Street, 
Union  Street,  Seventh  Avenue  and  Gravesend  Avenue  to  a  connection  with  the  Culver 
line  now  included  under  Contract  No.  4. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  extensions,  a  number  of  minor  extensions  to  the  elevated 
lines  should  be  constructed  where  such  lines  now  terminate  short  of  the  City  limits. 
Neiv  Trunk  Lines — 

A  new  west  side  Manhattan  trunk  line  consisting  of  four  tracks  of  the  proposed 
8-track  Amsterdam  Avenue-Eighth  Avenue  trunk  line,  extending  from  155th  Street 
in  upper  Manhattan  to  23d  Street  in  lower  Manhattan ;  with  a  collecting  and  distributing 
branch  extending  from  its  northern  extremity  through  upper  Manhattan  and  into  The 
Bronx,  via  Fort  Washington  Avenue  to  Spuyten  Duyvil,  and  thence  via  Netherland 
Avenue  through  the  Riverdale  section;  with  provision  at  155th  Street  for  a  future 
easterly  branch  into  and  across  The  Bronx;  with  a  branch  from  its  southern  extremity 
extending  east  through  23d  Street  to  the  East  River,  which  subsequently  can  be  carried 
into  and  across  Brooklyn,  and  with  another  branch  extending  south  down  Hudson 
and  Washington  Streets  to  somewhere  near  the  Battery,  which  subsequently  can  also 
be  extended  to  Brooklyn. 

A  new  east  side  Manhattan  trunk  line  consisting  of  four  tracks  of  the  proposed 
6-track  Madison  Avenue  trunk  line,  extending  from  the  Harlem  River  to  23d  Street, 
with  no  collecting  and  distributing  branch  at  the  northern  extremity  at  the  present 
time,  but  with  a  2-track  collecting  and  distributing  branch  exending  from  the  southern 
extremity  down  Fifth  Avenue  and  through  lower  Manhattan  to  some  point  near  Park 
Place,  the  other  two  of  the  four  tracks  terminating  at  23d  Street  and  Madison  Avenue. 

Moving  Platforms — 

Three  moving  platform  subways  to  provide  sufficient  transfer  facilities  across 
town  between  all  the  north  and  south  trunk  lines,  to  be  located  through  14th  Street, 
42d  Street  and  57th  Street,  from  river  to  river. 

When  the  above  program  has  been  consummated : 

Bronx 

Those  portions  of  The  Bronx  farthest  removed  from  the  Center  will  be  brought 
into  the  transit  scheme  by  short  extensions  of  the  Broadway  branch  of  the  existing 
Interl>orough  subway,  the  Jerome  Avenue  elevated  line,  the  Webster  Avenue  elevated 
line,  and  the  West  Farms  branch  of  the  Interhorough  subway  to  the  City  line.  West 
Bronx  north  of  the  Harlem  River  will  also  be  made  accessible  to  the  Center  by  means 
of  the  new  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  trunk  line. 

Ql'EENS 

In  Queens,  Flushing  will  be  connected  up  with  the  Dual  System  by  means  of  the 
Corona  branch  extension.  The  Steinway  Tunnel  line  will  be  extended  down  Eighth 
Avenue,  Manhattan,  through  the  Center  into  lower  Manhattan,  thus  providing  direct 
access  without  transfer  into  and -through  the  Center  for  the  Queens  people  now  being 
served  by  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  and  its  branches.  Queens  will  also  be  brought  into 
direct  connection  with  Brooklyn  by  means  of  the  proposed  crosstown  line  connecting  with 
the  Brighton  Beach  line  at  Franklin  Avenue,  thereby  giving  Queens  direct  access  to 
Coney  Lland  without  requiring  its  people  to  enter  and  travel  through  Manhattan. 

Brooklyn 

The  Fulton  Street  elevated  line  in  Brooklyn  at  or  about  Ashland  Place  will  be 
provided  With  a  new  subway  and  river  tunnel  connection  into  and  through  Manhattan, 


5 


thereby  providing  the  territory  traversed  by  the  Fulton  Street  elevated  line  with  the 
much  needed  improvement  in  its  transit  facilities.  A  new  and  direct  subway  and  river 
tunnel  connection  into  and  through  Manhattan  will  be  provided  for  the  Culver  line, 
thereby  relieving  the  much  overloaded  Fourth  Avenue  Subway,  and  consequently 
affording  additional  facilities  to  the  South  Brooklyn  section.  Another  connection 
to  Coney  Island  by  way  of  an  extension  of  the  Nostrand  Avenue  line  will  be 
provided,  thereby  furnishing  the  people  using  the  Intcrborough  lines  in  Brooklyn  and 
in  Manhattan  direct  connection  with  Coney  Island  for  a  single  fare.  The  crosstown 
line  through  Brooklyn  connecting  the  Brighton  Beach  line  at  Franklin  Avenue  with  the 
Astoria  branch  in  Queens  will  provide  convenient  crosstown  facilities  along  the  water- 
front in  Brooklyn,  and  because  of  the  fact  that  it  will  intersect  practically  all  other  rapid 
transit  lines  in  Brooklyn,  will  also  afford  a  convenient  medium  of  interchange  between 
such  lines. 

Richmond 

Richmond  will  be  provided  with  its  first  rapid  transit  facilities  by  means  of  the 
tunnels  under  the  Narrows  connecting  Richmond  with  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
existing  Fourth  Avenue  Subway. 

Manhattan 

Two  new  East  and  West  Side  trunk  line  subways,  with  their  branches  at  their 
northern  and  southern  extremities,  will  provide  the  additional  facilities  required  to 
meet  the  increased  traffic  demands  through  the  congested  Center,  and  will  also  afford 
additional  access  to  the  Center  for  those  lines  serving  the  outlying  boroughs.  The 
three  moving  platform  lines  will  enable  all  the  traffic  which  will  reach  the  Center  over 
the  old  and  new  lines  to  be  distributed  conveniently  to  any  point  within  the  Center. 
The  new  West  Side  trunk  line,  because  of  its  proposed  connection  with  the  existing 
Lenox  Avenue  branch,  and  its  new  branch  to  be  extended  through  the  upper  West 
Side  of  Manhattan,  will  furnish  for  the  upper  West  Side  section  such  new  transit 
facilities  as  this  rapidly  growing  territory  requires. 

Consequently,  the  proposed  25-year  program  will  mean  greatly  improved  transit 
facilities  for  every  borough  of  the  City. 

It  is  impracticable  to  estimate  the  construction  cost  of  this  25-year  program 
because  of  the  long  period  over  which  the  construction  would  extend.  At  pre-war 
prices,  however,  it  is  estimated  that  such  a  construction  program  would  cost  somewhere 
in  the  neighborhood  of  $175,000,000.  At  present  prices  it  is  estimated  that  this  cost 
would  amount  to  $350,000,000,  so  that  the  construction  cost  of  carrying  out  such  a 
program  would  probably  be  somewhere  between  these  two  figures.  These  figures  do 
not  include  interest  during  construction  or  engineering  and  superintendence.  No  estimate 
has  been  made  of  the  cost  of  equipping  the  lines  included  in  the  program.  The  operators 
of  the  lines  would  be  required  to  do  this. 

The  work  of  carrying  out  such  plans  should  be  begun  immediately  and  proceeded 
with  gradually  and  continuously  if  the  transit  facilities  of  the  City  are  in  any  degree 
to  keep  pace  with  the  tremendous  traffic  growth. 

The  new  transit  lines  should  precede  the  population.  The  new  transit  plan  should 
be  the  basis  of  the  City  plan.  Upon  these  two  cardinal  principles  the  future  of  the  City 
depends.  The  foresight  exercised  in  developing  its  transit  facilities  and  in  conforming 
its  future  expansion  thereto  will  largely  determine  the  prosperity  of  New  York  City 
in  the  years  to  come. 

Very  truly  yours, 

DANIEL  L.  TURNER, 

Chief  Engineer. 

Dated  July  29,  1920. 


6 


PROPOSED   COMPREHENSIVE   RAPID   TRANSIT  PLAN  COVERING 
ALL  OF  THE  BOROUGHS  OF  NEW  YORK  CITY 


The  Enormous  Traffic  Growth 

In  the  past  the  traffic  on  the  street  railway  lines  in  New  York  City  has  nearly 
doubled  every  ten  years. 

In  1913,  the  year  the  Dual  Contracts  were  signed,  the  rapid  transit  lines  in 
Manhattan  and  Brooklyn  (subway  and  elevated  lines  together)  carried  810,000,000 
passengers. 

In  1920  the  rapid  transit  lines,  including  the  old  and  new  lines,  will  carry  about 
1,333,000,000  passengers  for  the  year. 

This  means  that  the  rapid  transit  traffic  per  year  has  already  increased  523,000,000 
passengers,  although  the  Dual  System  is  not  yet  completely  in  operation. 

The  present  year's  rapid  transit  traffic — 1,333,000,000  passengers — is  nearly  one- 
half  of  the  total  traffic  capacity  of  the  Dual  System.  The  Interborough  trunk  lines  in 
Manhattan  are  saturated  now  in  the  rush  hours  one  way.  In  about  another  ten  years 
the  whole  Dual  System  will  have  become  saturated  with  traffic. 

The  first  Interborough  subway,  just  before  service  on  the  two  new  East  and  West 
Side  lines  was  inaugurated,  carried  a  maximum  of  418,000,000  passengers  per  year. 
The  old  and  new  Interborough  subways,  although  the  new  lines  will  have  been  in 
operation  only  about  two  years,  will  carry  this  year  about  577,000.000  passengers — an 
increase  of  38  per  cent,  in  about  two  years. 

The  New  York  Municipal  Railway  lines  in  1918,  at  about  the  same  time  the  East 
and  West  Side  Interborough  service  was  begun,  carried  about  258,000,000  rapid  transit 
passengers  per  year.  This  year  they  will  approximate  378,000,000  passengers — an 
increase  of  about  46  per  cent,  in  two  years. 

In  1910  it  was  estimated  that  the  total  traffic  on  all  lines  for  1920  (surface,  subway 
and  elevated  lines)  would  amount  to  about  2,600,000,000  passengers.  For  the  year 
ending  June  30,  1920,  the  traffic  amounted  to  about  2,400,000,000  passengers — practically 
substantiating  the  estimate  of  ten  years  ago.  The  total  traffic  to  be  provided  for  in 
1945,  twenty-five  years  hence,  is  estimated  to  amount  to  somewhere  around  5,000.000,- 
000  passengers.  The  population  of  New  York  then  will  be  somewhere  around  nine 
and  a  half  million  people. 

The  foregoing  figures  are  sufficient  to  indicate  the  enormity  of  the  traffic  growth 
for  which  municipal  transportation  must  be  provided  if  the  development  and  the 
prosperity  of  the  City  are  not  to  be  held  back. 

The  Dual  Subway  System 

In  order  to  keep  pace  with  the  enormous  traffic  growth,  the  City  must  build  more 
transit  facilities — then  more  again — and  still  more  again — and  must  keep  on  doing  this 
continually.  This  necessity  has  been  recognized  since  the  inception  of  the  first  subway 
line.  Before  the  first  subway  began  to  operate  in  1904,  studies  were  being  made  for 
additional  rapid  transit  lines  by  Mr.  Parsons,  then  Chief  Fngineer  of  the  Board  of 
Rapid  Transit  Railroad  Commissioners.  Subsequently  Mr.  Rice,  who  succeeded  Mr. 
Parsons  as  Chief  Engineer,  carried  on  these  studies,  with  the  result  that  before  the 
Public  Service  Commission  came  into  office  an  extensive  system  of  proposed  new 
rapid  transit  routes  had  been  laid  down  in  Manhattan,  The  Bronx  and  Brooklyn. 
These  proposed  new  lines  to  a  large  extent  served  as  a  basis  for  the  routes  subsequently 
included  in  the  Dual  Contracts.  When  the  responsibility  for  the  City's  transit  develop- 
ment was  vested  in  the  Public  Service  Commission,  it  continued  with  the  development 


7 


program  which  had  been  initiated  by  its  predecessor.  Its  Chief  Engineers,  Mr.  Rice, 
Mr.  Seaman  and  Mr.  Craven,  all  submitted  schemes  for  extensions.  But  despite  all 
of  the  efforts  of  the  public  authorities,  nothing  material  was  accomplished  in  the  way 
of  providing  for  additional  facilities  until  1913,  nine  years  after  the  first  subway  was 
put  into  operation.  At  this  time,  as  a  result  of  this  nine  years  of  effort,  the  Dual 
Subway  System  was  consummated,  and  the  contracts  between  the  City  and  the  Inter- 
borough  Rapid  Transit  Company  and  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation 
were  entered  into  on  March  19,  1913. 

The  Dual  System  contracts  practically  doubled  the  trackage  and  trebled  the 
capacity  of  the  then  existing  rapid  transit  facilities,  including  the  City's  subway  system 
and  the  elevated  systems  of  the  Interborough  Company  and  the  Brooklyn  Rapid 
Transit  Company.  The  combined  system,  the  old  and  new  lines,  has  an  estimated 
capacity  of  about  three  billion  passengers  annually. 

Since  the  Dual  System  contracts  were  signed  the  attention  of  the  Public  Service 
Commission  and  the  Transit  Construction  Commissioner  necessarily  has  been  devoted 
almost  entirely  to  the  completion  of  these  contracts.  The  extraordinary  conditions 
brought  about  by  the  World  War  and  later  by  our  participation  in  it  have  greatly 
delayed  the  work  and  largely  increased  its  cost,  so  that  we  have  just  succeeded,  only 
now,  after  seven  years,  in  getting  the  major  portion  of  the  system  into  operation. 
During  this  period,  although  various  minor  extensions  of  the  system  have  been  under 
consideration,  no  comprehensive  plan  for  future  development  has  been  laid  down. 

The  Dual  System  contracts  were  nine  years  too  late  in  getting  started.  The  war 
has  delayed  their  completion,  so  that  now  the  construction  program  is  fully  ten  years 
behind  the  transit  requirements.  The  time  has  now  arrived  when  we  must  look  ahead 
again.  A  comprehensive  plan  for  the  enlargement  of  the  rapid  transit  system  must 
be  developed.  The  work  of  carrying  out  such  a  plan  must  be  begun  immediately  and 
proceeded  with  gradually  and  continuously  if  the  transit  facilities  are  in  any  degree 
to  keep  pace  with  the  tremendous  traffic  growth. 

New  Transit  Lines  Should  Precede  the  Population — Not  Follow  the  Population 
The  Dual  System  was  planned  primarily  in  such  a  way  as  to  best  serve  the  whole 
community.  New  lines  were  laid  down  through  the  congested  areas.  But  instead  of 
confining  all  the  new  lines  to  old  lines  of  travel,  or  to  the  already  congested  sections, 
lines  also  were  laid  down  in  wholly  undeveloped  portions  of  the  City.  It  was 
expected  that  this  principle  in  planning  rapid  transit  lines,  in  conjunction  with  the 
new  zoning  law  limiting  the  height  of  buildings  in  congested  sections,  would  work 
together  so  as  to  distribute  the  population  of  the  Greater  City  rather  than  to  further 
concentrate  it.  In  other  words,  as  far  as  practicable,  the  idea  followed  in  planning 
the  system  was  that  the  transit  facilities  should  precede  the  population — not  follow 
the  population.  In  conformity  with  this  principle,  the  program  provided  rapid  transit 
lines  through  the  Borough  of  Queens,  where  no  rapid  transit  facilities  had  previously 
existed  and  where  the  population  was  very  small.  New  lines  were  also  laid  down 
in  undeveloped  portions  of  Brooklyn  and  The  Bronx.  To  bring  all  of  these  lines 
into  and  through  the  business  center  and  at  the  same  time  to  provide  service  for  the 
congested  sections,  new  trunk  lines  were  provided  traversing  Manhattan.  The  enlarged 
program  provided  rapid  transit  for  every  borough  of  the  City  except  Richmond. 

War  Conditions  Have  Caused  Early  Congestion  on  Manhattan  Trunk  Lines 
The  14th  Street-Eastern  line,  routing  along  14th  Street  in  Manhattan  and  running 
into  and  through  Brooklyn,  is  the  only  line  which  has  not  been  completed  sufficiently 
to  permit  operation  in  part. 

The  trunk  lines  through  Manhattan  have  all  been  completed  and  placed  in  opera- 
tion, together  with  most  of  their  outlying  collecting  and  distributing  branches.  Delays 
due  to  the  war,  however,  have  retarded  the  completion  of  a  number  of  these  collecting 


8 


and  distributing  branches.  Furthermore,  the  war  effort  practically  stopped  all  building 
operations.  Consequently,  practically  no  new  housing  facilities  have  been  provided 
along  the  collecting  and  distributing  branches  which  are  in  operation.  The  result 
of  this  has  been  that  the  distribution  of  the  population,  which  the  system  was  intended 
to  effect,  has  practically  been  rendered  impossible  for  the  time  being. 

Experience  has  shown  that  as  the  transit  facilities  become  mere  and  more  con- 
gested, the  City's  population  drifts  away  into  the  surrounding  suburban  districts. 
As  soon  as  new  transit  facilities  go  into  operation  there  is  a  prompt  return  of  large 
portions  of  this  population.  This  returning  population  together  with  such  new  popu- 
lat  ion  that  has  come  to  the  City  has  mostly  endeavored  to  find  housing  along  the  main 
trunk  lines  traversing  Manhattan  and  The  Bronx.  For  this  reason  largely  the  Man- 
hattan facilities  one  way  in  the  rush  hours,  particularly  on  the  old  and  new  subway 
lines,  immediately  have  become  inordinately  congested.  As  soon  as  building  opera- 
tions become  normal  again,  and  housing  facilities  can  be  provided  along  the  collecting 
and  distributing  branches  in  the  undeveloped  portions  of  the  outlying  boroughs,  the 
future  population  growth  will  be  better  distributed.  Nevertheless,  it  is  imperative 
that  a  new  program  should  be  laid  down  for  further  development  of  the  transit 
system,  so  that  as  soon  as  the  financial  condition  of  the  City  will  permit  it,  a  new 
rapid  transit  building  program  can  be  inaugurated  and  be  continuously  carried  on. 
In  the  Fall  of  1919,  as  early  as  the  circumstances  had  permitted,  I  began  the  studies  for 
the  comprehensive  extension  program  which  is  now  submitted. 

Convenient  Rapid  Transit  Service  Basis  of  Transit  Plan 
The  primary  function  of  a  municipal  transportation  system  is  to  provide  the 
public  with  convenient  and  adequate  transit  facilities.  The  question  of  profit  to  the  operat- 
ing companies  and  to  the  City  is  a  secondary  matter.  Convenient  and  adequate  facilities 
mean  facilities  which  are  easily  accessible  and  are  speedy  enough  to  permit  the  longest 
distance  rider  to  travel  from  home  to  business — including  walk  at  each  end — within 
an  hour.  In  the  case  of  a  city  which  can  be  included  in  a  circumscribed  radius  of 
four  or  five  miles  or  thereabouts  from  the  center,  surface  facilities  are  all  that  are 
required.  These  facilities  may  consist  of  street  railway  lines  or  bus  lines.  Such 
facilities  usually  consist  of  single  car  or  bus  operation,  although  sometimes  trailer 
cars  are  added  in  the  case  of  the  street  railway  lines.  The  speed  of  such  vehicles 
during  the  heavy  traffic  hours,  including  stops,  approximates  seven  miles  per  hour. 
At  such  a  speed  in  a  four  or  five-mile  radius  city  no  one  need  take  longer  than  the 
hour  to  reach  his  work — or,  homeward  bound,  reach  his  home. 

When  a  city  has  developed  to  a  point  where  its  outer  limits  exceed  four  or  five  miles 
from  the  center,  the  congestion  in  traffic  which  has  developed  and  the  time  which  is  con- 
sumed in  traveling  become  such  factors  that  travel  on  the  surface  is  no  longer  sufficient, 
and  faster  means  of  transit  must  be  provided  between  home  and  business — or  between 
the  outlying  sections  and  the  center.  At  this  time  rapid  transit  lines  must  be  developed. 
The  first  rapid  transit  lines  may  be  two-track  lines — similar  to  the  Manhattan  and  Brook- 
lyn elevated  lines,  for  example.  On  such  lines,  including  all  stops,  passengers  can  travel  at 
about  15  or  16  miles  per  hour,  so  that  a  10  or  12-mile  radius  city  can  be  served  properly. 
As  the  outer  limits  of  the  city  become  more  and  more  distant  from  the  center,  the  transit 
speed  must  be  increased.  In  response  to  this  requirement  the  express-local  transit 
service  has  been  developed,  similar  to  the  subway  lines  in  Manhattan  and  Brooklyn. 
On  these  express-local  lines  passengers  can  travel  through  the  outlying  sections  on  the 
local  trains,  making  all  stops,  at  the  rate  of  about  16  miles  per  hour,  and  through  the 
center  on  express  trains  at  about  25  miles  per  hour.  The  average  speed  from  the  outer 
limits  to  the  center  increases  with  the  increase  in  the  length  of  the  express  tracks.  A 
line  with  express  tracks  running  to  the  end  of  it  could  properly  serve  an  18-milc  radius 
city.  In  New  York,  with  the  existing  proportion  of  express  tracks  on  the  subway  lines, 


9 


the  average  speed  from  the  circumference  to  the  center  of  the  City  is  about  18  miles  per 
hour,  thereby,  on  the  hour  standard,  furnishing  satisfactory  service  12  miles  out.  The 
combination  express-local  service  will  thus  bring  passengers  into  the  center  fast  enough 
to  permit  them  to  complete  their  trip  between  home  and  work  within  the  desired  hour. 

Rapid  transit  lines  cannot  be  located  on  the  street  surface.  They  must  be  located 
either  on  elevated  structures,  in  open  cuts,  or  in  subways,  where  they  will  not  be  inter- 
fered with  by  the  ordinary  street  uses.  In  the  beginning,  rapid  transit  lines  are  only  sup- 
plementary to  the  surface  facilities.  They  provide  adequate  and  convenient  transit  along 
the  more  congested  lines  of  travel  to  the  outermost  limits  of  the  City.  The  surface  lines 
at  this  time  still  take  care  of  the  short-haul  travel.  As  the  population  increases  and  as 
the  City  spreads  out  still  further  from  the  center,  more  and  more  rapid  transit  facilities 
must  be  provided.  At  the  same  time  also  the  surface  facilities  are  added  to  meet  the 
increased  demands  of  the  short-haul  traffic.  This  growth  in  the  transit  facilities- 
surface  and  rapid  transit — goes  on  until  finally  the  major  portion  of  the  population  must 
rely  almost  entirely  upon  rapid  transit  lines  to  transfer  them  from  their  homes  to  their 
work  and  back  again. 

New  York  City  has  arrived  at  this  point  of  transit  development.  From  now  on  its 
transit  program  must  be  planned  on  the  basis  of  serving  the  whole  City  conveniently 
with  rapid  transit  lines. 

In  a  sense,  this  means  that  surface  transit  must  be  replaced  by  elevated,  open-cut 
or  subway  transit.  Or  in  other  words,  surface  line  service  must  give  way  to  rapid 
transit  service.  This  evolution  in  city  transit  in  New  York — particularly  in  Man- 
hattan— is  necessary  not  only  because  of  the  tremendous  traffic  increases  which  must 
be  accommodated,  but  also  because  this  is  one  way  in  which  additional  street  capacity 
for  vehicles  can  be  obtained.  It  may  be  assumed  that  convenient  rapid  transit  service 
will  be  provided  if  a  prospective  passenger  is  not  required  to  walk  much  more  than 
half  a  mile  to  reach  a  rapid  transit  line  routing  towards  the  business  center,  which  is 
the  objective  point  for  most  of  the  traffic.  Most  people  can  walk  a  half  mile  in  ten 
minutes.  On  this  basis  of  planning  the  rapid  transit  lines  will  be  about  a  mile  apart 
in  the  residential  districts,  but  as  they  approach  the  center  they  will  route  closer  to- 
gether, to  the  extent  of  traversing  every  street  in  extreme  cases.  For  crosstown  service 
in  the  outlying  sections  rapid  transit  lines  two  miles  apart  will  conveniently  serve  the 
community.  At  the  center  the  crosstown  lines  must  be  closer  together.  They  must 
be  close  enough  to  provide  sufficient  transfer  capacity,  as  capacity  and  not  convenience 
is  the  controlling  factor  in  such  location.  When  its  transit  program  conforms  to  this 
standard  of  convenient  service  New  York  City  will  have  been  provided  with  a  complete 
rapid  transit  system,  and  in  effect  its  surface  car  system  will  have  been  replaced  by  a 
rapid  transit  system,  as  must  be  the  case  to  relieve  surface  congestion. 

The  Transit  Plan  Should  Be  the  Basis  of  the  Future  City  Plan 

Such  a  program  will  require  many  years  for  its  consummation.  In  the  meantime 
the  art  will  develop.  Therefore  planning  so  far  in  advance  of  actual  immediate  require- 
ments necessarily  assumes  that  the  plan  will  be  modified  in  many  particulars  before  it 
is  ever  completely  carried  out.  Nevertheless,  it  is  desirable  to  look  as  far  ahead  as 
possible.  The  laying  down  of  a  comprehensive  plan  now  means  that  each  element  of  the 
plan  as  it  is  needed  in  the  larger  transit  scheme  can  be  considered  and  developed  in  its 
relation  to  the  whole  plan.  A  better  co-ordination  of  the  various  parts  of  the  plan 
can  thus  be  effected.  Furthermore,  the  City  can  only  grow  as  its  urban  transportation 
system  expands.  Its  development  in  the  future  must  conform  to  its  new  transit  lines. 
In  short,  the  transit  plan  should  be  the  real  basis  for  the  City  plan.  This  means  that  in 
the  undeveloped  sections  of  the  City  the  new  street  plans  and  the  new  transit  plans 
should  be  considered  together.  The  new  streets  should  be  wide  enough  to  permit  the 
construction  of  elevated  lines  through  their  center  in  such  a  way  as  not  to  injuriously 


10 


affect  contiguous  property.  The  central  space  on  both  sides  of  the  elevated  line  and 
beneath  it  could  be  transformed  into  parkways.  Through  the  congested  districts  some 
of  the  underneath  space  could  be  utilized  for  automobile  storage  purposes.  Or  better, 
the  street  plan  should  provide  narrow  rights-of-way  between  the  streets  through  which 
such  elevated  lines  can  be  built.  Again,  it  may  be  desirable  to  locate  the  rapid  transit 
lines  in  open  cuts.  This  is  probably  the  most  desirable  type  of  construction.  Wider 
streets,  or  special  rights-of-way,  also  are  necessary  for  this  kind  of  line.  The  street 
plan  should  take  this  into  account.  For  these  reasons,  and  for  many  others,  therefore, 
the  formulation  of  a  comprehensive  transit  plan  at  this  time  is  justifiable. 

The  Comprehensive  Plan 
The  complete  comprehensive  rapid  transit  system  proposed,  based  on  convenient 
service  to  the  whole  City,  is  shown  on  the  plan,  entitled  "  Map  of  Proposed  Compre- 
hensive Rapid  Transit  Plan  Covering  All  of  the  Boroughs  of  Greater  New  York,"  dated 
June,  1920,  transmitted  herewith.  On  this  plan  the  existing  rapid  transit  facilities — 
those  included  in  the  Dual  Contracts — are  shown  in  solid  lines.  The  proposed  additional 
lines  and  extensions  to  the  existing  lines  are  shown  in  broken  lines.  In  the  outlying 
sections  of  Queens  and  in  Richmond  only  the  approximate  location  of  the  lines  has  been 
indicated,  for  the  reason  that  the  territories  traversed  by  these  proposed  routes  have 
not  yet  been  provided  with  a  complete  street  system.  As  already  pointed  out,  it  will 
be  advantageous  therefore  in  connection  with  the  future  planning  of  the  street  systems 
in  these  territories  to  consider  the  prospective  rapid  transit  lines.  Throughout  the 
developed  parts  of  the  City  the  new  lines  conform  to  the  existing  street  plans.  It  is 
not  to  be  assumed  that  in  such  a  comprehensive  layout  the  actual  location  of  the 
lines  may  not  be  changed  at  the  time  the  lines  are  actually  laid  down  for  construction. 
The  plan  is  only  intended  to  indicate  their  approximate  position.  In  other  words,  the 
plan  is  meant  to  show  generally  the  number  of  such  new  lines  and  their  approximate 
location,  on  the  theory  that  all  portions  of  the  City  will  eventually  be  entitled  to  con- 
venient access  to  rapid  transit  lines. 

All  Transit  Lines  Enter  and  Traverse  the  Center 
In  the  development  of  the  plan  every  collecting  and  distributing  branch  traversing 
The  Bronx,  Queens,  Brooklyn  and  Richmond  is  routed  into  and  through  the  center  in 
Manhattan.  The  center  in  Manhattan  is  assumed  to  include  that  portion  of  Manhattan 
below  59th  Street.  In  other  words,  all  transit  lines,  wherever  they  may  originate  in  the 
outlying  boroughs,  enter  and  traverse  the  center,  so  as  to  afford  the  same  degree  of 
accessibility  to  this  8  square  miles  from  all  of  the  315  square  miles  constituting  the 
whole  City.  The  circumstances  demand  this.  But  it  would  be  better  if  other  centers 
could  be  created  and  thus  avoid  focussing  the  active  life  of  the  entire  community  in 
one  area.  The  tendency  is  to  concentrate  activities — not  disperse  them.  Originally 
there  were  five  communities,  but  these  were  consolidated  into  one.  Each  borough  to 
a  certain  degree  still  maintains  its  individuality,  and  within  its  own  boundaries  contains 
its  particular  social  and  commercial  districts,  but  the  most  of  the  borough  activities 
are  concentrated  in  the  one  area  in  Manhattan  used  by  all  of  the  boroughs  in  com- 
mon. Here  the  great  majority  of  the  workers  of  the  whole  City  find  their  daily 
occupations.  Here  the  most  attractive  shopping  districts  are  located.  Here  the  ammc 
mcnts  for  the  entire  City  are  segregated.  In  short,  this  is  the  real  community  center  for 
the  entire  City.  It  is  and  most  likely  will  continue  to  be  the  objective  point  for  most 
of  the  municipal  travelers.  Now  our  problem  is  with  a  single  community — not  five 
communities — and  we  must  meet  and  deal  with  the  conditions  as  they  exist. 

In  the  case  of  the  lines  serving  Richmond — six  two-track  collecting  and  distributing 
lines — three  of  the  lines  reach  the  center  in  lower  Manhattan  by  way  of  Brooklyn.  The 
first  Richmond  lines  should  not  only  provide  transit  for  Richmond,  but  also  should 


11 


traverse  and  serve  Brooklyn.  The  other  three,  those  for  later  development,  reach  the 
center  by  way  of  New  Jersey.  Their  routing  through  New  Jersey  has  not  been  de- 
termined. Before  these  last  lines  can  be  constructed  necessary  treaty  arrangements 
will  have  to  be  effected  between  the  States  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey. 

Maximum  Traffic  Through  Center  by  Means  of  Two-way  Traffic  Lines 
As  far  as  it  has  been  practicable  to  do  so,  every  trunk  line  traversing  the  center 
in  Manhattan  is  connected  at  both  extremities  with  collecting  and  distributing  branches 
in  such  a  way  as  to  develop  a  two-way  traffic,  thereby  utilizing  such  trunk  lines  for  the 
movement  of  fully  loaded  trains  in  both  directions  during  each  rush  hour,  in  this  way 
making  use  of  the  street  system  through  the  center  to  its  maximum  capacity  for  rapid 
transit  service.  Even  under  such  conditions,  however,  practically  every  north  and  south 
avenue  through  the  center  of  Manhattan  will  be  utilized  by  rapid  transit  lines. 

Two-story  Subways  Are  Proposed  Because  There  Are  Not  Enough  North  and 
South  Avenues  for  Necessary  Trunk  Lines 
In  some  cases  it  is  proposed  to  utilize  the  north  and  south  avenues  for  rapid  transit 
purposes  to  a  greater  extent  than  ever  before  contemplated.  It  is  necessary  to  do  this 
because  there  are  not  enough  up  and  down  avenues  available  for  trunk  lines.  From  the 
City  Hall  to  125th  Street,  including  Broadway,  there  are  only  eleven  through  avenues. 
Two  avenues,  Sixth  and  Seventh,  are  cut  off  by  Central  Park,  with  no  population  to 
serve,  and  which  is  filled  with  lakes  and  reservoirs  to  build  under.  Above  125th  Street 
there  are  still  fewer  through  avenues.  The  eleven  through  avenues  connect  and  serve 
about  150  effective  crosstown  streets  to  125th  Street.  Expressed  in  another  way,  Man- 
hattan from  the  Battery  to  Spuyten  Duyvil  has  approximately  100  miles  of  north  and 
south  thoroughfares  to  serve  approximately  325  miles  of  crosstown  streets — or  the  ratio 
of  crosstown  to  longitudinal  streets  is  over  three  to  one.  Again,  the  exterior,  or  marginal, 
avenues  do  not  go  through  the  most  important  part  of  the  center;  therefore  their  use 
is  not,  and  is  never  likely  to  be,  as  intensive  as  those  nearer  the  median  line.  These 
conditions  explain  the  inordinate  congestion  which  exists  along  all  north  and  south 
travel  lines.  Consequently,  since  the  avenues  are  too  few  in  number,  it  is  proposed  to 
multiply  their  use  underground.  In  the  case  of  one  avenue,  Eighth  Avenue,  a  two- 
story  eight-track  subway  is  proposed.  In  the  case  of  another  avenue,  Madison  Avenue, 
a  two-story  six-track  subway  is  proposed.  All  of  the  tracks  in  these  two-story  subways 
will  probably  not  be  constructed  at  the  same  time.  Some  new  lines  will  have  to  be 
provided  soon  on  the  West  Side  and  some  on  the  East  Side  of  Manhattan.  Probably 
two-story  lines  will  have  to  be  started  in  Eighth  Avenue  and  in  Madison  Avenue  at 
about  the  same  time,  but  with  only  two  tracks  in  each  story,  provision  being  made  in 
locating  the  line  in  the  street  and  in  constructing  it  so  that  the  remaining  tracks  can 
be  added  later  on. 

An  effort  has  been  made  to  bring  the  trunk  lines  throughout  the  center  as  near  the 
median  line  of  Manhattan  as  possible.  In  this  manner  the  majority  of  the  rapid  transit 
lines  through  the  center  south  of  59th  Street  is  contained  within  the  section  between 
Ninth  Avenue  on  the  West  Side  and  Lexington  Avenue  on  the  East  Side.  The  trunk 
lines  are  routed  north  and  south  in  as  straight  lines  as  practicable,  which  will  at  the 
same  time  permit  them  to  be  brought  closest  to  the  median  line. 

Moving  Platforms  for  Distribution  of  Traffic  in  the  Center 
Loops  within  the  center  are  objectionable  because  they  segregate  traffic  to  such  an 
extent  as  to  create  a  menacing  congestion  of  all  kinds — pedestrian,  vehicular  and  transit 
congestion. 

The  best  way  of  providing  convenient  crosstown  connections  between  all  lines  is  by 
means  of  a  number  of  crosstown  lines  routing  practically  from  river  to  river.  Surface 


12 


lines  may  be  utilized  at  first  if  proper  transfer  arrangements  are  effected.  But  where 
the  traffic  is  dense,  in  order  to  relieve  the  street  for  other  uses  and  to  accelerate  transit 
movements,  the  railway  traffic  should  be  placed  underground.  It  is  believed  that  the 
most  desirable  way  of  furnishing  such  crosstown  connections  is  by  means  of  under- 
ground moving  platform  lines.  The  comprehensive  program  therefore  includes  five 
such  moving  platform  lines  crossing  through  Manhattan  in  14th,  23d,  34th,  42d  and 
57th  Streets.  With  a  number  of  crosstown  lines  the  transferring  would  not  be  con- 
centrated but  would  be  distributed  over  many  points.  By  two  transfers,  including  two 
rides  on  north  and  south  trunk  lines  and  one  ride  on  a  moving  platform  line,  the 
enormous  number  of  passengers  reaching  the  center  could  conveniently  reach  any 
point  within  the  center.  Two  outlying  crosstown  lines  have  been  laid  down  in  the 
comprehensive  plan.  One  is  a  proposed  Brooklyn  Waterfront  Crosstown  Line  through 
Queens  and  Brooklyn,  from  Astoria  to  South  Brooklyn.  This  line  was  under  con- 
templation in  part  when  the  Dual  System  plan  was  formulated.  The  other  is  a  proposed 
Manhattan-Bronx-to-the-ocean  crosstown  line.  It  starts  on  the  West  Side  of  Man- 
hattan in  155th  Street,  crosses  Manhattan,  routes  along  161st  Street  in  The  Bronx, 
across  the  Sound  and  Riker's  Island,  across  Queens  to  and  along  the  Long  Island  right- 
of-way  to  Rockaway.  By  means  of  this  line  and  a  single  transfer  everyone  in  upper 
Manhattan  and  in  The  Bronx  can  ride  directly  to  the  ocean.  It  is  expected  that  other 
crosstown  rapid  transit  lines  will  have  to  be  provided  traversing  Brooklyn  and  Queens, 
and  possibly  The  Bronx,  but  the  location  of  such  lines  can  best  be  determined  upon  as  a 
result  of  the  future  growth  of  the  City. 

21  More  Two-track  Tunnel  Crossings  Proposed 

At  the  present  time  there  are  34  single-track  river  crossings  connecting  Manhattan 
with  The  Bronx,  Queens  and  Brooklyn.  The  proposed  plan  contemplates  adding  42 
single-track  river  crossings.  All  of  these  crossings  will  be  by  means  of  tunnels. 
This  means,  therefore,  that  the  comprehensive  program  includes  21  additional  two- 
track  tunnel  lines  under  the  waters  surrounding  Manhattan  and  connecting  Manhattan 
with  The  Bronx,  Queens,  Brooklyn  and  Richmond. 

830  Single-track  Miles  of  New  Rapid  Transit  Facilities 

The  proposed  new  routes  have  not  been  studied  in  detail.  It  is  therefore  impossible 
to  say  how  much  of  the  mileage  will  be  underground  mileage  and  how  much  of  it 
elevated  mileage.  The  total  new  mileage,  including  the  new  lines,  extensions  and 
moving  platforms,  and  including  the  third  tracks,  amounts  to  about  830  single-track 
miles  of  additional  rapid  transit  facilities.  The  Dual  System  has  616  miles  of  single 
track.  The  proposed  new  facilities  therefore  would  considerably  more  than  double 
the  Dual  System  mileage.  The  third  tracks  do  not  traverse  the  center  and  therefore 
do  not  add  materially  to  capacity,  but  they  permit  of  decreasing  the  time  of  travel 
between  the  outlying  limits  and  the  center.  Twelve  extensions  to  the  existing  lines  are 
proposed. 

31  Additional  Subway  Tracks  Through  the  Center  for  Rush-hour  Traffic 

The  Intcrborough  East  and  West  Side  trunk  lines  contain  four  tracks  each,  or 
eight  tracks  altogether,  At  the  present  time  only  six  of  these  eight  tracks  carry  loaded 
trains  through  the  center  during  the  rush  hours.  Relatively  empty  trains  travel  over  the 
other  two  tracks,  ^n  other  words,  only  two  pairs  of  these  tracks  develop  a  two-way 
traffic;  the  other  two  pairs  develop  only  a  one-way  traffic.  It  is  proposed  at  some 
future  time  to  connect  up  the  two  one-way  traffic  pairs  to  Brooklyn,  thereby  trans- 
forming them  into  two-way  traffic  pairs,  and  in  this  manner  obtain  an  additional  two- 
track  capacity  through  the  center  during  the  rush  hours.    Similarly  it  is  proposed  to 


13 


extend  the  pair  of  tracks  of  the  New  York  Municipal  four-track  trunk  line  which 
now  terminates  at  59th  Street  into  upper  Manhattan  so  as  to  secure  another  full  capacity 
movement  through  the  center,  which  with  the  two  Interborough  full  capacity  movements 
will  add  three  new  full  capacity  movements  altogether. 
At  the  present  time  traversing  the  center  north 

and  south  there  are   7  trunk  lines, 

consisting  of   20  tracks  (excluding  3d  tracks). 

There  are  proposed    6  new  trunk  lines, 

consisting  of   28  tracks, 

thus  making  a  total  of  13  trunk  lines, 

consisting  of   48  tracks, 

running  north  and  south  in  Manhattan  through  the  center. 

The  three  new  full  capacity  movements,  with  the  28  new  tracks  which  are  proposed 
under  the  comprehensive  plan,  will  furnish  31  additional  full  capacity  tracks  through 
the  center,  all  connected  with  collecting  and  distributing  branches  running  out  into  and 
through  the  outlying  sections  of  all  of  the  boroughs. 

The  Equivalent  of  the  Comprehensive  Plan  Might  Be  Required  in  Seventy-five 

Years 

Based  on  present-day  degree  of  utilization  of  tracks  and  present-day  types  of 
equipment,  the  proposed  additional  trunk  line  tracks  would  be  able  to  develop  a 
capacity  of  somewhere  around  7,000,000,000  passengers  per  year.  It  is  not  humanly  pos- 
sible to  predetermine  when  all  of  these  facilities  may  be  needed.  The  art  of  trans- 
portation may  so  change  that  they  may  never  be  needed  in  subways.  On  the  other 
hand,  considering  past  conditions  and  assuming  development  generally  along  present 
lines,  some  degree  of  approximation  may  be  made  as  to  when  the  equivalent  of  the 
comprehensive  plan  may  be  required.  Rapid  transit  in  New  York  City  began  about 
fifty-two  years  ago — in  1868.  This  year  the  total  traffic  on  all  transportation  lines — 
surface,  subway  and  elevated  lines — will  amount  to  about  2,400,000,000  passengers. 

This  figure  practically  represents  the  growth  of  traffic  in  fifty-two  years.  But 
the  greater  part  of  this  growth  has  occurred  during  the  last  twenty-five  years,  not- 
withstanding the  increase  in  travel  by  automobile.  In  this  period  the  total  traffic  has 
increased  about  1,700,000,000  passengers.  If  only  the  same  rate  of  increase  is  assumed 
for  the  next  seventy-five  years,  the  traffic  to  be  cared  for  then  would  amount  to 
7,500,000,000  passengers.  But  from  the  beginning  to  the  present  time  the  rate  of  growth 
has  continually  increased.  Therefore,  it  is  not  unreasonable  to  assume  that  in  seventy- 
five  years  the  traffic  may  amount  to  somewhere  around  9,000,000,000  passengers — 
7,600,000,000  more  than  are  now  carried.  If,  in  the  future,  most  of  the  traffic  is  rapid 
transit  traffic,  then  the  7,000,000,000  additional  capacity  provided  by  the  proposed 
comprehensive  plan  would  not  much  more  than  suffice  for  the  City's  transit  needs 
seventy-five  years  hence. 

Eight  New  Trunk  Line  Tracks  Through  the  Center  Required  in  Next  Twenty- 
five  Years 

Although  it  is  not  possible  to  look  ahead  to  the  end,  it  is  practicable  to  see  forward 
to  the  near  future.  If  twenty-five  years  from  now  5,000,000,000  passengers  must  be 
accommodated,  and  most  of  them  on  rapid  transit  lines,  it  means  that  enough  facilities 
must  be  added  to  serve  2,600,000.000  passengers.  Eight  new  trunk  line  tracks  through 
the  center  with  collecting  and  distributing  branches  running  out  from  their  extremities 
would  be  sufficient  to  do  this.  Supplementing  the  new  trunk  lines,  three  crosstown 
moving  platforms  should  be  constructed  to  supply  proper  distributing  facilities  through- 
out the  center.    Also,  two  of  the  existing  one-way  traffic  lines  should  be  extended 


14 


north  or  south,  as  the  case  may  be.  in  order  that  their  full  trunk  line  capacity  through 
the  center  may  be  utilized. 

Extensions  and  Betterments  Needed 

Besides  these  facilities  some  extensions  to  the  existing  lines  ought  to  be  built, 
and  such  betterments  effected  as  the  developments  in  the  art  may  indicate  to  be 
desirable. 

The  service  in  our  subways  is  the  most  attractive  municipal  transit  service  in  the 
world.  The  all-day  express  service  coupled  with  convenient  interchange  between 
express  and  local  trains  is  the  outstanding  feature  of  this  service.  But  the  effect  of 
this  kind  of  operation  has  been  to  unbalance  the  use  of  the  express  and  local  tracks. 
On  the  Interborough  lines  ten-car  express  trains  are  operated  and  six-car  local  trains, 
and  despite  the  difference  in  the  size  of  the  trains  the  intensity  of  loading  is  greater 
on  the  express  than  on  the  local  trains.  Observations  made  at  one  time  indicated  that 
nearly  one-third  of  all  the  subway  passengers  used  two  trains  to  reach  their  destination 
— express  and  local  or  local  and  express.  A  great  many  use  three  trains.  This  char- 
acter of  service  is  popular  and  is  a  public  convenience,  but  it  is  had  at  a  sacrifice  to 
subway  capacity.  Some  way  should  be  found  to  equalize  the  use  of  the  express  and 
local  tracks.  If  this  could  be  done  and  ten-car  local  trains  utilized  the  capacity  would 
immediately  be  increased  25  per  cent.,  and  probably  much  more,  with  the  same  intensity 
of  use  of  the  two  classes  of  service.  An  equalizing  method  of  operation  was  suggested 
at  one  time,  but  it  did  not  meet  with  favor.  It  may  be  necessary  to  adopt  some  such 
plan  later. 

The  Most  Important  New  Routes  Proposed 

The  foregoing  covers  the  most  salient  points  of  the  proposed  development  program. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  discuss  the  various  routes  and  extensions  in  detail.  Some  of  the 
most  important  routes,  however,  may  be  mentioned. 

The  earliest  additional  facility  which  can  be  provided  for  upper  Manhattan  on 
the  West  Side  is  by  means  of  the  construction  of  a  proposed  two-track  extension  of 
the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation  Broadway-Seventh  Avenue  line  up 
Central  Park  West  and  Eighth  Avenue  (or  Seventh  Avenue)  to  the  Harlem  River. 
The  effect  of  such  a  line  would  be  to  immediately  relieve  the  Sixth  and  Ninth  Avenue 
elevated  line  by  providing  additional  facilities  for  the  territory  north  of  110th  Street 
and  east  of  Morningside  Park.  It  would  also  tend  to  relieve  the  existing  Interborough 
subway  west  of  Central  Park  from  96th  Street  to  59th  Street.  If  the  route  followed 
Seventh  Avenue  instead  of  Eighth  Avenue  north  of  110th  Street,  the  present  Lenox 
branch  would  be  relieved,  thereby  enabling  the  Lenox-Broadway  service  to  be  reduced 
and  the  upper  Manhattan-Broadway  service  to  be  correspondingly  increased.  This 
two-track  subway  extension  would  mean  building  a  line  only  from  59th  Street  north 
to  the  Harlem  River.  This  would  be  a  collecting  and  distributing  branch  to  the  existing 
Broadway-Seventh  Avenue  subway  now  being  operated  by  the  New  York  Municipal 
Railway  Corporation  and  would  take  the  people  using  it  down  the  center  of  Manhattan 
via  Broadway  to  City  Hall  and  below.  In  other  words,  only  the  branch  would  need  to  be 
built.  The  trunk  line  is  already  available.  A  suggestion  was  made  at  one  time  that 
such  an  extension  should  traverse  St.  Nicholas  Avenue  and  Broadway  to  the  upper  end 
of  Manhattan  Island,  thereby  affording  relief  to  this  section  of  Manhattan.  A  sugges- 
tion has  been  made  recently  that  this  branch  follow  St.  Nicholas  Avenue  and  Fort 
Washington  Avenue  to  Spuytcn  Duyvil.  The  disadvantages  of  extending  this  two-track 
line  by  way  of  either  of  these  proposed  routes  are  that  it  would  be  a  very  long  two-track 
branch,  and  also  it  would  be  too  close  to  park  areas  and  other  areas  not  available  for 
housing  developments.  For  these  reasons  it  would  not  provide  the  most  desirable  transit 
facilities  for  the  section  north  of  155th  Street  in  upper  Manhattan.    Increased  facilities 


IS 


for  this  territory  can  better  be  provided  by  the  proposed  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam 
Avenue-Broadway  trunk  line,  which  is  proposed  to  be  built  all  the  way  from  155th  Street 
south  to  the  Battery.  The  territory  in  Question  therefore  in  upper  Manhattan  north  of 
155th  Street  would  be  served  by  this  latter  route  with  a  relatively  short  collecting  and 
distributing  branch,  and  would  be  provided  with  express  service  all  the  way  south 
of  155th  Street. 

Ultimately  it  is  proposed  that  the  Lenox  Avenue-West  Farms  connection  of  the 
original  subway  should  be  transferred  from  the  present  Interborough  Seventh  Avenue- 
Broadway  line  to  the  new  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  line,  the  necessary  tracks 
for  such  connection  being  provided  in  the  new  line.  This  would  free  the  Seventh 
Avenue-Broadway  line  for  the  exclusive  use  of  upper  Manhattan,  and  would  at  the 
same  time  provide  the  Lenox  Avenue-West  Farms  branch  with  a  West  Side  connection 
as  at  present. 

The  principal  new  line  proposed  for  the  West  Side  of  Manhattan  is  the  Eighth 
Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  trunk  line  previously  referred  to.  This  would  be  con- 
nected with  distributing  and  collecting  branches  both  at  the  northern  and  southern 
extremities  of  the  line.  At  the  northern  extremity  from  155th  Street  a  branch  would 
cross  the  Harlem  River  and  traverse  The  Bronx  through  161st  Street,  Longwood  Ave- 
nue and  Randall  Avenue  to  Throggs  Neck.  This  branch,  part  way  through  The  Bronx, 
where  it  is  to  be  paralleled  by  the  proposed  Manhattan-Bronx-to-the-ocean  crosstown 
line  would  be  a  4-track  line.  Another  branch  would  traverse  upper  Manhattan  via  Fort 
Washington  Avenue  to  Spuyten  Duyvil  and  thence  via  Netherland  Avenue  through  the 
Riverdale  section.  Below  155th  Street  the  line  would  be  a  4-track  line  through  Amster- 
dam Avenue  to  103d  Street,  where  the  Lenox  Avenue-West  Farms  connection  would 
come  in.  From  this  point  to  86th  Street  it  would  be  a  6-track  line.  At  86th  Street  two 
tracks  would  come  in  from  Queens  via  86th  Street.  From  this  point  south  via  Amster- 
dam Avenue,  57th  Street  and  Eighth  Avenue,  the  line  would  be  of  eight  tracks.  At 
57th  Street  two  tracks  would  go  down  Tenth  Avenue.  These  would  be  the  two  tracks 
which  are  provided  for  the  Lenox  Avenue- West  Farms  connection.  In  other  words,  the 
Lenox  Avenue-West  Farms  connection  would  route  down  Amsterdam  Avenue  and  Tenth 
Avenue  all  the  way  to  14th  Street,  and  thence  down  Washington  Street  to  some  point 
near  the  Battery,  from  which  point  at  some  future  time  a  two-track  tunnel  may  be  con- 
structed across  to  New  Jersey  and  through  New  Jersey  to  a  connection  with  the  Borough 
of  Richmond.  At  41st  Street  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  from  the  East  would  connect  with 
the  eight-track  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  line.  The  Eighth  Avenue  line  would 
continue  south  to  23d  Street,  where  another  line  from  Brooklyn  would  connect  in.  Below 
23d  Street  the  line  would  be  six  tracks  through  Eighth  Avenue  and  Hudson  Street.  At 
Bedford  Street — the  southern  extremity  of  the  trunk  line — two  tracks  would  turn  off 
to  the  east,  to  be  later  extended  as  shown  into  and  through  Broadway,  Brooklyn. 
At  Grand  Street  two  more  tracks  would  branch  off  to  the  east,  also  to  be  extended 
into  Brooklyn  as  shown.  The  two  remaining  tracks  would  continue  down  Hudson 
and  Washington  Streets  to  the  Battery  and  cross  over  to  Brooklyn  via  Governor's 
Island  and  Hamilton  Avenue  to  Third  Avenue.  That  is,  all  of  the  collecting  and 
distributing  branches  from  the  southern  extremity  of  the  line  would  enter  and  traverse 
Brooklyn. 

Under  Contract  No.  3  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  terminated  at  Seventh  Avenue. 
Under  this  arrangement  the  people  using  this  line  would  not  be  provided  with  a  route 
through  the  center  except  by  transfer.  One  of  the  first  of  the  additional  facilities 
to  be  provided  should  be  the  extension  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  through  41st  Street 
to  Eighth  Avenue,  to  a  connection  with  the  proposed  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam 
Avenue  line,  and  down  Eighth  Avenue  to  the  Pennsylvania  Station,  thereby  providing 
a  direct  connection  between  the  Grand  Central  and  Pennsylvania  stations  without 
change  of  cars.    If  it  is  not  practicable  to  provide  for  the  entire  construction  of  the 


16 


proposed  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  trunk  line  immediately,  then  that 
portion  of  the  line  below  41st  Street  through  the  lower  part  of  Manhattan  might  be 
constructed  first,  thereby  providing  a  route  into  lower  Manhattan  for  those  passengers 
using  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line.  However,  it  is  important  that  the  Eighth  Avenue- 
Amsterdam  Avenue  line  be  constructed  in  its  entirety  as  soon  as  the  financial  con- 
dition of  the  City  will  permit  it,  for  the  reason  that  it  is  the  only  way  in  which  the 
transit  facilities  for  the  upper  West  Side  of  Manhattan  can  be  materially  improved. 
The  existing  Interborough  subway  is  the  only  rapid  transit  line  now  serving  this  por- 
tion of  the  City.  It  is  greatly  congested,  so  that  of  all  portions  of  Manhattan  the 
need  for  additional  transit  facilities  is  most  pressing  on  the  upper  West  Side.  There- 
fore, if  the  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  line  could  be  built  in  its  entirety  now, 
or  in  a  short  while,  it  would  not  only  relieve  the  congestion  in  the  upper  West  Side 
of  Manhattan,  but  would  also  provide  for  the  adequate  extension  of  the  Steinway 
Tunnel  line  previously  referred  to. 

The  principal  new  line  to  be  provided  on  the  East  Side  of  Manhattan  is  the  pro- 
posed Madison  Avenue  line.  This  line  would  begin  at  the  Harlem  River  as  a  4-track 
trunk  line,  with  a  possible  2-track  connection  to  The  Bronx,  and  extend  down  Madison 
Avenue  to  86th  Street,  where  two  tracks  would  branch  to  the  east  into  and  through 
Queens,  which  together  with  the  two-track  branch  from  the  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam 
Avenue  line  on  the  West  Side,  would  constitute  a  4-track  trunk  line  to  Queens. 
From  86th  Street  south  to  23d  Street  the  Madison  Avenue  line  would  be  a  6-track  line. 
At  23d  Street  one  2-track  branch  would  extend  down  Fifth  Avenue,  Greene  Street  and 
Church  Street  to  about  Chambers  Street,  where  eventually  the  line  would  turn  west 
under  the  Hudson  River  to  New  Jersey  and  to  Richmond.  At  Madison  Avenue  and 
23d  Street  two  tracks  would  terminate;  the  other  tracks  would  extend  down  Third 
Avenue  to  about  Third  Street,  where  they  would  turn  east  and  cross  the  East  River  to 
Brooklyn,  connecting  with  a  4-track  trunk  line  in  Broadway,  this  trunk  line  in  Brooklyn 
thus  being  served  by  an  East  Side  2-track  connection  via  Madison  Avenue,  and  a 
West  Side  2-track  connection  via  the  Eighth  Avenue  line  already  described. 

The  Fourth  Avenue-Lexington  Avenue  subway  is  now  heavily  overcrowded.  The 
neighborhood  around  the  Grand  Central  Terminal  is  rapidly  building  up.  Large 
increases  in  hotel  facilities  are  being  planned.  Numerous  extensive  office  building 
projects  are  taking  form.  In  a  relatively  short  time  the  existing  subway  will  be 
wholly  unable  to  meet  the  transit  requirements  of  the  East  Side  of  Manhattan,  and 
particularly  of  the  Grand  Central  neighborhood.  Consequently,  to  meet  this  pressing 
demand,  the  proposed  Madison  Avenue  line  will  have  to  be  placed  under  construction 
in  the  near  future. 

With  respect  to  Queens,  its  first  need  is  the  extension  of  the  Corona  line  to 
Flushing,  and  the  extension  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  west  and  down  Eighth  Avenue 
as  already  described. 

In  the  case  of  Brooklyn,  the  most  pressing  need  is  for  additional  trunk  line  facil- 
ities into  and  through  Manhattan.  These  facilities  can  best  be  provided,  first,  by  build- 
ing a  subway  and  tunnel  connection  via  Livingston  and  Washington  Streets,  Brooklyn, 
and  into  Manhattan  to  a  connection  with  the  two  tracks  of  the  New  York  Municipal 
Railway  Corporation  four-track  Broadway  trunk  line  which  now  terminates  at  City 
Hall.  In  Brooklyn  this  two-track  subway  temporarily  could  connect  with  the  Fulton 
Street  elevated  line  at  or  near  Ashland  Place.  This  project  has  already  been  suggested. 
Later,  another  two-track  subway  and  tunnel  crossing  to  Manhattan  could  be  provided, 
starting  in  Brooklyn  in  Fulton  Street  in  the  neighborhood  of  Ashland  Place  at  about 
the  same  point  that  the  former  line  is  proposed  to  begin,  and  routing  through  State 
Street  and  via  a  tunnel  to  a  connection  with  the  spur  provided  at  the  lower  end  of 
the  Whitehall  Street  subway  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation.  When 
this  new  crossing  is  constructed  it  would  probably  be  desirable  to  extend  the  four-track 


17 


subway  through  Fulton  Street  in  Brooklyn  to  East  New  York.  If  this  is  done,  the 
present  Montague  street  tunnels  will  be  given  over  to  the  exclusive  use  of  the  Centre 
Street  Loop  and  Nassau  Street  lines. 

For  Richmond,  the  first  thing  that  is  needed  is  to  provide  a  tunnel  crossing  at  the 
Narrows  connecting  Richmond  with  the  center  of  Manhattan  via  the  Fourth  Avenue 
subway.  Xo  rapid  transit  facilities  have  yet  been  provided  for  the  Borough  of  Rich- 
mond. This  tunnel  crossing,  therefore,  should  be  one  of  the  first  projects  advanced. 
Shortly  after  the  Fourth  Avenue  subway  is  connected  up  with  Richmond  it  will  prob- 
ably be  necessary  to  deflect  the  Sea  Beach  line  from  it.  The  Sea  Beach  line  is  a 
company-built  line.  It  will  be  necessary  some  time  to  provide  an  additional  outlet 
for  this  line  into  and  through  Manhattan.  This  can  be  done  by  way  of  a  four-track 
route  through  Second  Avenue,  Smith  Street  and  Jay  Street  to  Park  Avenue  extended. 
From  this  point  two  tracks  would  join  the  waterfront  crosstown  line  and  two  tracks 
would  continue  by  a  tunnel  crossing  to  the  East  Side  of  Manhattan,  connecting  with 
an  East  Side  trunk  line  traversing  Manhattan  through  Lexington  and  Third  Avenues. 
Later,  as  other  connections  have  to  be  provided  for  Richmond,  two  more  pairs  of 
tunnels  could  be  built  across  the  Narrows,  connecting  with  a  new  four-track  subway 
through  Third  Avenue  in  Brooklyn  and  reaching  Manhattan  via  two  two-track  lines, 
one  via  Hamilton  Avenue  and  Governor's  Island  to  the  Battery,  connecting  with  the 
two  tracks  of  the  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  line,  as  already  described;  and 
the  other  via  Atlantic  Avenue,  Brooklyn,  to  the  Battery,  and  via  a  subway  extension 
on  the  East  Side  of  lower  Manhattan  to  a  connection  with  the  two  tracks  of  the 
Fourth  Avenue-Lexington  Avenue  line  of  the  Interborough  Company  now  terminating 
at  City  Hall.  The  two  tracks  of  the  Interborough  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway  line 
that  now  terminate  at  the  Battery  it  is  proposed  to  connect  at  Liberty  Street  with  a 
two-track  line  through  Liberty  Street  and  Maiden  Lane,  under  the  East  River  to 
Brooklyn,  and  thence  via  Hicks  Street,  Union  Street  and  Seventh  Avenue  to  a  connec- 
tion with  the  present  city-owned  Culver  line.  This  proposed  Culver  line  connection 
with  the  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway  line,  and  the  proposed  Atlantic  Avenue  connection 
with  the  Fourth  Avenue-Lexington  Avenue  line  would  provide  four  more  tracks  to 
and  through  Brooklyn,  and  no  new  trunk  line  traversing  the  center  in  Manhattan 
would  have  to  be  provided  to  give  these  Brooklyn  lines  access  to  the  center  of  Man- 
hattan. It  would,  however,  develop  a  two-way  traffic  through  the  existing  four 
tracks  of  the  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway  line  and  Fourth  Avenue-Lexington  Avenue 
line  of  the  Interborough  Company  which  are  not  now  used  for  two-way  traffic. 
When  this  is  done  the  eight  tracks  in  these  two  trunk  lines  will  all  be  used  for  two-way 
traffic,  and  these  two  lines  therefore  may  then  be  developed  to  their  maximum  capacity. 

None  of  the  other  lines  will  be  described  in  detail.  Their  general  location  is 
indicated  plainly  enough  on  the  plan. 

Extensions  and  New  Routes  Recommended  for  Early  Construction  to  Meet  Next 
Twenty-five  Years'  Requirements 

Extensions — 

The  first  new  work  that  will  have  to  be  carried  out  will  probably  be  certain 
extensions  or  additions  to  the  existing  lines,  as  follows: 

Extension  of  the  Corona  branch  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line  from  its 
present  terminus  to  Main  Street,  Flushing. 

Extension  of  the  Steinway  Tunnel  line,  from  its  proposed  terminus  at 
Seventh  Avenue  and  41st  Street,  west  through  41st  Street  to  a  connection  with 
the  proposed  Eighth  Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  trunk  line,  as  already  described. 

Two-track  extension  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation 
Broadway-Fourth  Avenue  trunk  line,  from  59th  Street  and  Seventh  Avenue  up 
Central  Park  West  and  Eighth  or  Seventh  Avenue  to  the  Harlem  River. 


18 


Extension  from  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corporation  Broadway- 
Fourth  Avenue  subway,  at  Broadway  and  City  Hall  Park,  via  Ann  Street  and  the 
East  River  to  Brooklyn,  and  thence  via  Brooklyn  Bridge  terminal  property, 
Washington  Street,  Livingston  Street,  DeKalb  Avenue  and  Fort  Greene  Place 
to  a  connection  with  the  Fulton  Street  elevated  line  at  or  near  Ashland  Place. 
This  connection  has  already  been  under  consideration. 

Two-track  tunnel  under  the  Narrows  connecting  the  southern  extremity  of 
the  Broadway-Fourth  Avenue  line  of  the  New  York  Municipal  Railway  Corpo- 
ration with  the  Borough  of  Richmond,  providing  the  first  rapid  transit  facilities 
for  this  borough. 

Continuation  of  the  Nostrand  Avenue  subway  of  the  Interborough  Company 
south  into  and  through  Coney  Island. 

Crosstown  line  through  Queens  and  Brooklyn  connecting  the  Astoria  branch 
in  Queens  with  the  Brighton  Beach  line  in  Brooklyn,  thereby  providing  a  cross- 
town  line  between  Queens  and  South  Brooklyn,  and  being  a  part  of  the  proposed 
Brooklyn  waterfront  crosstown  line  previously  described.  Such  a  connection 
has  already  been  laid  down  and  was  considered  for  incorporation  in  the  Dual 
System,  but  had  to  be  omitted  because  of  lack  of  funds  for  construction  at 
that  time. 

Extension  of  the  two  tracks  of  the  Interborough  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway 
line  now  terminating  at  the  Battery,  from  a  point  at  Greenwich  and  Liberty 
Streets,  via  Liberty  Street,  Maiden  Lane  and  the  East  River  to  Brooklyn,  and 
thence  via  Hicks  Street,  Union  Street,  Seventh  Avenue  and  Gravesend  Avenue 
to  a  connection  with  the  Culver  line  now  included  under  Contract  No.  4,  the 
understanding  being  that  the  Culver  line  will  subsequently  be  recaptured,  as 
provided  in  Contract  No.  4,  to  permit  the  Interborough  Company  to  operate  this 
extension,  thereby  utilizing  the  pair  of  tracks  in  the  Seventh  Avenue-Broadway 
line  for  two-way  traffic  instead  of  one-way  traffic  as  at  present. 

Also,  some  minor  extensions  to  the  elevated  lines  where  such  lines  are  not 
now  routed  out  to  the  City  limits. 

New  Trunk  Lines — 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  extensions  the  following  new  trunk  lines  will  probably 
have  to  be  constructed  in  the  near  future: 

Serving  the  West  Side  of  Manhattan,  four  tracks  of  the  eight-track  Eighth 
Avenue-Amsterdam  Avenue  trunk  line,  extending  from  155th  Street  in  upper 
Manhattan  to  23d  Street  in  lower  Manhattan,  with  a  collecting  and  distributing 
branch  from  its  northern  extremity  extending  north  through  upper  Manhattan 
and  into  The  Bronx,  and  provision  for  an  easterly  branch,  which  later  can  be 
constructed  east  across  The  Bronx  via  161st  Street,  Longwood  Avenue  and 
Randall  Avenue  to  Throggs  Neck,  and  with  a  branch  from  its  southern  ex- 
tremity extending  east  through  23d  Street  to  the  East  River,  which  subsequently 
can  be  carried  across  to  Brooklyn,  and  with  another  branch  extending  south 
down  Hudson  and  Washington  Streets  to  somewhere  near  the  Battery,  which 
subsequently  can  be  extended  to  Brooklyn. 

Serving  the  East  Side  of  Manhattan,  four  tracks  of  the  six-track  Madison 
Avenue  trunk  line,  extending  from  the  Harlem  River  to  23d  Street,  with  no 
collecting  and  distributing  branch  at  the  northern  extremity,  but  with  a  two- 
track  collecting  and  distributing  branch  extending  from  the  southern  extremity 
down  Fifth  Avenue  and  through  lower  Manhattan  to  some  point  near  Park 
Place,  the  other  two  of  the  four  tracks  terminating  at  23d  Street  and  Madison 
Avenue. 


19 

Moving  Platforms — 

Tn  order  to  provide  sufficient  transfer  facilities  across  town  between  all  of  the 
north  and  south  trunk  lines  to  permit  of  the  traffic  reaching  the  center  having  easy 
access  to  any  point  within  the  center, 

three  moving  platform  subways  should  be  included  in  the  program,  namely, 
through  14th  Street,  42d  Street  and  57th  Street,  practically  from  river  to  river, 
connecting  all  the  up  and  down  rapid  transit  lines. 

The  extensions,  new  trunk  lines  and  moving  platforms  projected  above  will  probably 
meet  all  of  the  rapid  transit  requirements  for  the  next  twenty-five  years.  The  building 
program  should  be  laid  down  in  such  a  manner  as  to  enable  the  beginning  of  con- 
struction of  these  lines  as  soon  as  possible,  and  so  as  to  equally  distribute  their  con- 
struction over  this  twenty-five-year  period  in  order  that  all  of  the  facilities  outlined 
may  be  available  at  the  expiration  of  this  period. 

It  is  impracticable  to  estimate  the  construction  cost  of  this  twenty-five-year 
program  because  of  the  long  period  over  which  the  construction  would  extend.  At 
pre-war  prices,  however,  it  is  estimated  that  the  construction  program  outlined  would 
cost  somewhere  in  the  neighborhood  of  $175,000,000.  At  present  prices  it  is  estimated 
this  cost  would  amount  to  $350,000,000.  It  is  hardly  likely  that  present  costs  will  be 
greatly  exceeded,  so  that  the  cost  of  carrying  out  this  program  will  probably  be  some- 
where between  these  two  figures.  These  figures  do  not  include  interest  during  con- 
struction or  engineering  and  superintendence.  No  estimate  has  been  made  of  the  cost 
of  equipping  these  lines.   The  operators  of  the  lines  would  be  required  to  do  this. 

Total  Cost  and  Rate  of  Construction  Cannot  be  Estimated 
It  is  impracticable  at  this  time  to  make  any  estimate  of  the  entire  cost  of  the 
comprehensive  program  outlined.  It  is  impossible  also  to  say  just  how  fast  the  new 
work  should  be  proceeded  with  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  program.  If 
the  program  is  ever  carried  out  in  its  entirety,  its  complete  construction  will  extend 
over  a  long  period  of  years.  During  this  time  the  art  of  transportation  will  be  subject 
to  many  changes.  New  developments  may  enable  larger  capacities  to  be  obtained  from 
the  existing  lines,  thereby  slowing  down  the  new  building  program.  The  best  that  can 
be  done  is  to  keep  informed  from  year  to  year  and  add  new  facilities  in  response  to 
the  apparent  need  of  a  few  years  ahead,  and  at  the  same  time  always  keep  the  general 
program  in  view. 

New   Building   Program   Must   be   Started   at   Once   and   Kept   Under  Way 

Continuously 

This  means  that  contact  with  the  transit  situation  must  be  maintained  always. 
From  present  conditions  it  is  evident  now  that  new  facilities  must  be  available  soon 
to  meet  the  immediate  future  transit  needs.  It  has  averaged  about  ten  years  from 
the  inception  of  the  previous  general  transit  projects  to  the  date  of  the  operation  of 
the  lines.  Therefore,  it  is  important  that  as  soon  as  the  Dual  System  construction  is 
completely  under  contract,  a  new  building  program  should  be  started  at  once,  and  be 
proceeded  with  gradually  and  continuously  in  anticipation  of  and  in  order  to  keep 
ahead  of  the  constantly  growing  traffic  requirements.    This  is  the  essential  thing. 

The  new  transit  lines  should  precede  the  population.  The  new  transit  plan  should 
be  the  basis  of  the  City  plan.  Upon  these  two  cardinal  principles  the  future  of  the 
City  dcpei.ds.  The  foresight  exercised  in  developing  its  transit  facilities  and  in  con- 
forming its  future  expansion  thereto  will  largely  determine  the  prosperity  of  New 
York  City  in  the  years  to  come. 

DANIEL  L.  TURNER, 

Chief  Engineer. 

Dated  July  29,  1920. 


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PROPOSED  COMPREHENSIVE  RAPID  TRANSIT  PLAN 

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